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Normas industriales

NORMAS
Los métodos establecidos para almacenar líquidos inflamables y de otro tipo en tanques están definidos en el Código de Normas Federales de la Administración de Seguridad y Salud Ocupacional (OSHA), y están reafirmados en numerosas normas desarrolladas por organismos asesores reconocidos en todo el país. A continuación, incluimos fuentes de información útiles, además de un resumen de fragmentos relevantes de los requisitos de la OSHA:


INSTITUTO ESTADOUNIDENSE DE PETRÓLEO (API)
El Instituto Estadounidense de Petróleo cuenta con las siguientes Normas relevantes:

  • API 12B Especificación para tanques atornillados para el almacenamiento de líquidos de producción
  • API 12D Especificación para tanques de soldadura en obra para el almacenamiento de líquidos de producción
  • API 12F Especificación para tanques de soldadura en taller para el almacenamiento de líquidos de producción
  • API 620 Reglas recomendadas para el diseño y la construcción de tanques de almacenamiento de baja presión, soldados y de gran tamaño
  • API 650 Tanques soldados para el almacenamiento de petróleo
  • API 2000 Venteo de tanques atmosféricos y de baja presión
  • API 2001 Protección contra incendios en refinerías
  • API 2003 Protección contra la ignición que se produce por corrientes de fuga, iluminación o estática
  • API 2015 Limpieza de los tanques de almacenamiento de petróleo
  • API 2513 Pérdida por evaporación en la industria petrolera – Causas y control
  • API 2516 Pérdida por evaporación de tanques de baja presión
  • API 2518 Pérdida por evaporación de tanques con techo fijo
  • API 2521 Uso de las válvulas de venteo de vacío/presión en tanques de presión atmosférica para reducir la pérdida por evaporación
  • API 2522 Métodos comparativos para evaluar los mecanismos para controlar la pérdida por evaporación
  • API 2523 Pérdida por evaporación de sustancias petroquímicas de tanques en tanques de almacenamiento

ASOCIACIÓN ESTADOUNIDENSE DE PROTECCIÓN CONTRA INCENDIOS (NFPA)
La Asociación Estadounidense de Protección contra Incendios cuenta con las siguientes Normas relevantes:

NFPA 30 Código para líquidos combustibles e inflamables
NFPA 69 Sistemas para evitar explosiones


OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ACT (OSHA)

This section should be helpful in selecting the particular Protectoseal Tank Protection Division equipment needed to meet specific requirements. Relevant paragraphs have been excerpted from the CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS, section:

1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Act


DEFINITIONS
1910.106 - Flammable and combustible liquids.

1910.106(a)(2)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (2) Atmospheric tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 psig

1910.106(a)(6)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (6) Boil over shall mean the expulsion of crude oil (or certain other liquids) from a burning tank. The light fractions of the crude oil burn off producing a heat wave in the residue, which on reaching a water strata may result in the expulsion of a portion of the contents of the tank in the form of froth.

1910.106(a)(14)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (14) "Flashpoint" means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid.

1910.106(a)(14)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (18) "Combustible liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100°F. (37.8° C.) Combustible liquids shall be divided into two classes as follows: (I) "Class II liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 100°F. (37.8°C.) and below 140°F. (60°C.), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F. (93.3°C.) or higher, the volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. (ii) "Class III liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F. (60°C.) Class III liquids are subdivided into two subclasses: {a} "Class IIIA liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 140°F. (60°C.) and below 200°F. (93.3°C.), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 200°F. (93.3°C.), or higher, the total volume of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. (b) "Class IIIB liquids" shall include those with flashpoints at or above 200°F. (93.3°C.). This section does not cover Class IIIB liquids. Where the term "Class III liquids" is used in this section, it shall mean only Class IIIA liquids. (iii) When a combustible liquid is heated for use to within 30°F. (16.7°C.) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for the next lower class of liquids.

1910.106(a)(19)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (19) "Flammable liquid" means any liquid having a flashpoint below 100°F. (37.8°C.), except any mixture having components with flashpoints of 100°F. (37.8°C.) or higher, the total of which make up 99 percent or more of the total volume of the mixture. Flammable liquids shall be known as Class I liquids. Class I liquids are divided into three classes as follows: (I) Class IA shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73°F. (22.8°C.) and having a boiling point below 100°F. (37.8°C.). (ii) Class IB shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73°F. (22.8°C.) and having a boiling point at or above 100°F. (37.8°C.). (iii) Class IC shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73°F. (22.8°C.) and below 100°F. (37.8°C.).

1910.106(a)(21)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (21) Low-pressure tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures above 0.5 psig but not more than 15 psig.

1910.106(a)(26)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (26) Pressure vessel shall mean a storage tank or vessel which has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 psig.

1910.106(a)(33)
(a) Definitions. As used in this section: (33) Barrel shall mean a volume of 42 U.S. gallons.


ABOVE GROUND TANK STORAGE
1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(b)
(b) Tank Storage. (b) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons capacity may be used aboveground.

1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(c)
(b) Tank Storage. (c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.

1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(d)
(b) Tank Storage. (d) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable or combustible liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.

1910.106(b)(1)(iv)
(b) Tank Storage. (iv) "Low pressure tanks." (a) The normal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank. (b) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with the following consensus standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in Section 1910.106: (1) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620. Recommended Rules for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Third Edition, 1966. (2) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968. (c) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., requirements in subdivision (iii)(a) of and shall be limited to 2.5 psig under emergency venting conditions. This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 psig (d) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.

1910.106(b)(2)(iv)(a)(b)(c)
(b) Tank Storage. (iv) "Normal venting for aboveground tanks." (a) Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature changes. (b) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: (1) The American Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, which is incorporated by reference as specified in Section 1910.106; or (2) other accepted standard; or (3) shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 1 1/4" nominal inside diameter. (c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to prevent overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.

1910.106(b)(2)(iv)(d)(e)(f)(g)
(b) Tank Storage. (d) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow. (e) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 psi. or less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge in such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank in the event vapors from such vents are ignited. (f) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IA liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting to pressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IB and IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters. Exemption: Tanks of 3,000 bbls. capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons capacity containing other than Class IA flammable liquids may have open vents. (See subdivision (vi) (b) of this subparagraph.) (g) Flame arresters or venting devices required in subdivision (f) of this subdivision may be omitted for Class IB and IC liquids where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result in tank damage.

1910.106(b)(2)(v)
(b) Tank Storage. (v) "Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks." (a) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction or device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure fires. (b) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in subdivision (a) of this subdivision may take the form of a floating roof, lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail preferential to any other seam. (c) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table H-10 except as provided in subdivision (e) or (f) of this subdivision. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first 30' above grade of the exposed shell area of a vertical tank.

TABLE H-10 - WETTED AREA VERSUS CUBIC FEET FREE AIR PER HOUR
(14.7 psia and 601F.)

SQ. FT. CFH SQ. FT. CFH SQ. FT. CFH
20 21100 200 211000 1000 524000
30 31600 250 239000 1200 557000
40 42100 300 265000 1400 587000
50 52700 350 288000 1600 614000
60 63200 400 312000 1800 639000
70 73700 500 354000 2000 662000
80 84200 600 392000 2400 704000
90 94800 700 428000 2800 742000
100 105000 800 462000 and over  
120 126000 900 493000    
140 147000 1000 524000    
160 168000        
180 190000        
200 211000        

NOTE: Interpolate for intermediate values.

1910.106(b)(2)(v)(d)
(b) Tank Storage. (d) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 psig, the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table H-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800 square feet, the total rate of venting shall be calculated by the following formula:
CFH   =  1.107A0.82
Where:

CFH   =   Venting requirement, in cubic feet of free air per hour.
A        =   Exposed wetted surface, in square feet.

NOTE: The foregoing formula is based on:

Q   =   21,000A0.82

1910.106(b)(2)(v)(e)
(b) Tank Storage. (e) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:

CAPACITY   =  V x 1337 / L√M

Where:
V    =   Cubic feet of free air per hour from Table H-10
L     =   Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in BTU per pound
M    =   Molecular weight of specific liquids

1910.106(b)(2)(v)(f)
(b) Tank Storage. (f) The required airflow rate of subdivision (c) or (e) of this subdivision may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be used for any one tank.

0.5   For drainage in accordance with subdivision (vii)(b) of this
subparagraph for tanks over 200 square feet of wetted area

0.3   For approved water spray
0.3   For approved insulation
0.15   For approved water spray with approved insulation

1910.106(b)(2)(v)(g)(h)(i)
(b) Tank Storage. (g) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergency venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 psig shall be arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited. (h) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet per hour of air at 60°F. and at a pressure of 14.7 psia (i) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12" and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12" nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word "calculated" appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.

1910.106(b)(2)(vi)(b)(c)
(b) Tank Storage. (b) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I liquids are adjacent to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12" above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid their dispersion, vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacent walls. Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least five feet from building openings. (c) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.

UNGERGROUND TANKS
1910.106(b)(3)(iv)(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)
(b) Tank Storage.(iv) "Vents." (a) Location and arrangement of vents for Class I liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Class I liquids shall be so located that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipe opening, and not less than 12' above the adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors. Vent pipes 2" or less in nominal inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building openings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipe is less than 10' in length, or greater than 2" in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and pressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the outlet. (b) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 1 1/4" nominal inside diameter. (c) Location and arrangement of vents for Class II or Class III liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Class II or Class III flammable liquids shall terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening. Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be fitted with return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreign material. (e) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.

TANKS INSIDE OF BUILDINGS
1910.106(b)(4)(ii)
(b) Tank Storage. (ii) "Vents." Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in subparagraphs (2) (iv)(v) (vi)(b), and (3)(iv) of this paragraph, except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.

1910.106(b)(4)(iv)(c)
(b) Tank Storage. (c) Flammable or combustible liquid tanks located inside of buildings, except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable or combustible liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closing heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level, except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flow in the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank. This function may be incorporated in the valve required in (b) of this subdivision, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valve required in (b) of this subdivision.

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